|This article is written from a
Real World perspective.
|Studio||Walt Disney Productions|
|Distributors||Buena Vista Distribution|
|Release Date||July 9, 1982|
|Running Time||91 minutes|
|Box Office||$33 million|
TRON is a 1982 science fiction film produced by Walt Disney Productions. It stars Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn/Clu, Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley/Tron, Cindy Morgan as Lora Baines/Yori and Dan Shor as Popcorn Co-Worker/Ram. David Warner plays the villain, Ed Dillinger/Sark, as well as providing the voice of the Master Control Program. It was written and directed by Steven Lisberger. Being one of the first films in history to use 3-D computer graphics extensively, TRON has a distinctive visual style.
The film was a moderate success at the box office. It received positive reviews from critics who praised the groundbreaking visuals and acting, but the storyline was criticized at the time for being incoherent. It has since gained a cult following and is considered a pioneer in computer animation.
Kevin Flynn is a young and gifted programmer who once worked for the software mega-corporation ENCOM. Flynn created several video games on the ENCOM mainframe while working after hours with the aim of eventually creating his own games company. Before he is ready to present his projects to senior management, his work is stolen by another programmer, Ed Dillinger. Dillinger locks Flynn out of the system and goes on to present the games as his own work, thus earning himself a series of promotions.
Three years later, Dillinger is now a senior executive of ENCOM, and the company is run mainly by the Master Control Program (MCP), an artificial intelligence that started as Dillinger's chess program. Flynn, after being fired by Dillinger, has been reduced to running his own video game arcade, which ironically features several of the games he created. As a result, he attempts to break into the ENCOM mainframe and find the evidence he needs to prove Dillinger's wrongdoing. The MCP catches one of Flynn's computer programs, Clu, poking around in sensitive memory and derezzes the program. The MCP then summons Dillinger to discuss the matter, and Dillinger authorizes it to shut down access to all personnel in Flynn's former security group (Group-7 access). In the process, it inadvertently locks out a current ENCOM employee, Alan Bradley.
Alan goes to speak with Dillinger, and in the process reveals that he is working on a security program named Tron, which would be used to monitor communications between ENCOM and outside systems. When asked, he states that it would not be a part of the MCP, but rather that it would serve as a watchdog for the MCP as well. Dillinger dismisses him quickly, only to be confronted by the MCP about Alan's project. The MCP informs Dillinger that it plans to take over the Pentagon's computer systems, having calculated that it can run things "900 to 1200 times better than any human." When Dillinger attempts to reassert his control over the MCP, it essentially blackmails him into keeping quiet and complying with its wishes.
Meanwhile, Alan goes to speak with his girlfriend, Lora, an ENCOM laser lab technician and Flynn's ex-girlfriend. In the lab, Lora and her co-worker Walter (who started ENCOM in his garage) have just successfully digitized an orange using a powerful laser (causing it to disappear and reappear intact). Alan and Lora later set off to Flynn's arcade/apartment to warn him that Dillinger knows about his hacking. They see Flynn get a score of 999 on Space Paranoids. After being convinced that Flynn is looking for evidence that he was cheated by Dillinger, Alan and Lora sneak him into the laser lab, where he works on forging an access code for a different security group. This would allow him to find the information he is looking for, and would also allow Alan to finish his work and get Tron online.
Flynn settles down at Lora's lab terminal, where her laser points directly at the terminal. As Flynn tries to gain access to the system, he confronts the MCP. While he "chats" with the MCP, it takes control of the laser and suddenly digitizes Flynn into the world inside the computer, where programs are physical characters that resemble their creators.
Flynn materializes in the digital world and is taken to a holding pit. There, a financial program, Ram, tells Flynn that he is a "guest" of the Master Control Program, and that he is going to be made to play games. Flynn, who is convinced that he is dreaming, seems excited about this at first, saying "I play games better than anybody."
Flynn and a number of other Programs are soon taken to meet Sark (Dillinger's counterpart in the digital world). Sark tells each of the Programs that either they can join the MCP willingly, or they will be forced to compete in gladiator-style games that will result in their eventual elimination. Each Program receives an identity disc that stores their actions and experiences, and also doubles as a powerful weapon. On their way back to the holding pen, Flynn sees Tron fighting a number of other Programs, and Ram tells him that Tron fights for the Users.
Before he can return to the holding pit, Flynn is taken to his first game. The game is essentially a vertical version of Jai Alai, except that the players stand on platforms made up of concentric rings that disappear when the ball hits them, forcing them to jump over the gaps. Flynn is forced to face Crom, "one of his own kind" according to Sark. After several volleys, Crom falls off his platform and struggles to climb back up. When Flynn refuses to finish off his opponent, Sark terminates the game and sends Crom plummeting to his death. However, he spares Flynn, recalling the MCP's admonition: "I want him in the games until he dies playing."
Flynn returns to a holding area where Ram and Tron are waiting for him. Flynn immediately mistakes Tron for Alan, and Tron reveals that Alan is his user. Feigning disorientation, Flynn says that he's starting to remember "all kinds of stuff", including that his user wants him to take out the MCP. Tron states that that is his goal as well, but before they can talk much more, the three are taken to the light cycle arena. In here, the three must attempt to guide their opponents into their trails. They team up and manage to force one of their enemies into the side of the arena, opening a large crack in the wall through which they escape. Sark quickly launches his security forces (which consist of Flynn's Tank and Recognizer programs) to seek them out.
The three locate an I/O tower that Tron needs to access in order to communicate with Alan, but on the way, Flynn's and Ram's Light Cycles are destroyed by a Tank and Tron is separated from the group. Flynn takes the injured Ram to a pile of junk, which turns out to be a damaged Recognizer. He "accidentally" activates it and starts for the I/O tower, but on the way, Ram begins to derez. Ram asks Flynn if he is a User, which Flynn replies positively. Ram then asks Flynn to help Tron just before he dies and derezzes.
Meanwhile, Tron breaks into a simulation chamber where a Solar Sailer is being constructed. There, he finds Yori, a program written by Lora. After Tron breaks Yori out of her reporting routine, the two programs make their way to the I/O tower and confront Dumont (Walter's computer counterpart), the keeper of the tower. He grants Tron access to the port, and Tron receives the critical instructions he needs from Alan in order to destroy the Master Control Program. They then make their way back to the Solar Sailer, narrowly escaping Sark's forces, and set off for the MCP. Along the way, Flynn rejoins them, having accidentally disguised himself as one of Sark's troops. He explains to Tron and Yori at this point that he is actually a User.
Sark eventually captures Flynn and Yori, ramming the Solar Sailer with his ship. Sark then disembarks and begins derezzing the ship. Although Yori and the ship begin to fade away around him, Flynn manages to keep her alive and the ship intact. Yori believes Tron to be derezzed, but in reality, Tron has escaped on Sark's shuttle, which lands nearby the MCP's core. Here, a number of captured programs, including Dumont, are locked against a wall to face the MCP, which appears as a giant red face on a huge spinning cylinder. The MCP senses Tron's presence and sends Sark out to battle him, and then the MCP begins to tell the programs of their impending fate: "You will each become a part of me, and together, we will be complete."
Sark and Tron battle on the mesa, until Tron gains the upper hand, severely damaging Sark and destroying his disc. The MCP then transfers his functions to Sark, causing him to grow many times Tron's size. Tron begins to attack the MCP directly, attempting to break through the shield protecting its core. As the battle continues, Yori guides the remains of Sark's ship toward the core, where Flynn jumps inside. This distracts the MCP long enough for Tron to throw his disc through a gap in the shield, destroying the MCP.
The digital world comes alive after the MCP's defeat. I/O towers light up all over the landscape, and the Programs rejoice in the fact that their world has become a free system. They ponder Flynn's fate, but Flynn is sent back to the real world, the laser re-materializing him at the terminal. A nearby printer then begins printing the evidence that Flynn's programs were "annexed" by Dillinger.
Dillinger arrives at the office the next morning to discover a message on his computer's screen showing the evidence of his wrongdoing, and it can be implied that the evidence has been sent to every computer at ENCOM, and sometime that day Dillinger will be either fired or arrested. The movie closes with a brief scene where Alan and Lora greet Flynn at the helicopter pad on top of the ENCOM building. Flynn is now the chief executive of the company.
- Jeff Bridges ... Kevin Flynn/Clu
- Bruce Boxleitner ... Alan Bradley/Tron
- David Warner ... Ed Dillinger/Sark/Voice of MCP
- Cindy Morgan ... Lora Baines/Yori
- Barnard Hughes ... Dr. Walter Gibbs/Dumont
- Dan Shor ... Ram/Popcorn Co-Worker
- Peter Jurasik ... Crom
- Tony Stephano ... Peter/Sark's Lieutenant
- Craig Chudy ... Warrior #1
- Vince Deadrick ... Warrior #2
- Sam Schatz ... Expert Disc Warrior
- Jackson Bostwick ... Head Guard
- Dave Cass ... Factory Guard
- Gerald Berns ... Guard #1
- Bob Neill ... Guard #2
- Ted White ... Guard #3
- Mark Stewart ... Guard #4
- Michael Sax ... Guard #5
- Tony Brubaker ... Guard #6
- Charles Picerni ... Tank Commander
- Pierre Vuilleumier ... Tank Gunner #1
- Erik Cord ... Tank Gunner #2
- Loyd Catlett ... Conscript #1/Video Game Cowboy
- Michael J. Dudikoff ... Conscript #2
- Richard Bruce Friedman ... Video Game Player
- Rick Feck ... Boy in Video Game Arcade 1
- John Kenworthy ... Boy in Video Game Arcade 2
The inspiration for TRON occurred when Steve Lisberger saw video games for the first time. He was immediately fascinated by them and wanted to do a film incorporating them. According to Lisberger, "I realized that there were these techniques that would be very suitable for bringing video games and computer visuals to the screen. And that was the moment that the whole concept flashed across my mind." He was frustrated by the clique-ish nature of computers and video games and wanted to create a film that would open this world up to everyone. Lisberger and his business partner Donald Kushner moved to the West Coast in 1977 and set up an animation studio to develop TRON.
Originally, the film was conceived to be predominantly an animated film with live-action sequences acting as book ends. The rest would involve a combination of computer generated visuals and back-lit animation. Lisberger planned to finance the movie independently by approaching several computer companies but had little success. However, one company, Information International Inc., was receptive. He met with Richard Taylor, a representative, and they began talking about using live-action photography with back-lit animation in such a way that it could be integrated with computer graphics. At this point, Lisberger already had a script written and the film entirely storyboarded with some computer animation tests completed. He had spent approximately $300,000 developing TRON and had also secured $4–5 million in private backing before reaching a standstill. Lisberger and Kushner decided to take the idea to Disney who were interested in producing more daring productions at the time. However, they were uncertain about giving $10–12 million to a first-time producer and director using techniques that, in most cases, had never been attempted.
The studio agreed to finance a test reel which involved a frisbee champion throwing a rough prototype of the discs used in the film. It was a chance to mix live-action footage with black-lit animation and computer generated visuals. It impressed the executives at Disney and they agreed to back the film. The script was subsequently re-written and re-storyboarded with the studio's input.
Three designers were brought in to create the look of the computer world. Renowned French comic book artist Jean Giraud (aka Moebius) was the main set and costume designer for the movie. Most of the vehicle designs (including Sark's aircraft carrier, the Light Cycles, the Light Tank and the Solar Sailer) were created by industrial designer Syd Mead, of Blade Runner fame. Peter Lloyd, a high-tech commercial artist, designed the environments. However, these jobs often overlapped with Giraud working on the Solar Sailer and Mead designing terrain, sets and the film's logo. The original Program character design was inspired by the main Lisberger Studios logo, a glowing body builder hurling two discs.
To create the computer animation sequences of TRON, Disney turned to the four leading computer graphics firms of the day: Information International, Inc. of Culver City, CA, who owned the Super Foonly F-1 (the fastest PDP-10 ever made and the only one of its kind); MAGI of Elmsford, NY; Robert Abel & Associates of California; and Digital Effects of New York City. Bill Kovacs worked on this movie while working for Robert Abel before going on to found Wavefront Technologies. TRON was one of the first movies to make extensive use of any form of computer animation, and is celebrated as a milestone in the computer animation industry.
However, the film contains less computer-generated imagery than is generally supposed: Only fifteen to twenty minutes of actual animation were used. Because the technology to combine computer animation and live action did not exist at the time, these sequences were intercut with the filmed characters.
Most of the scenes, backgrounds and visual effects in the film were created using more traditional techniques and a unique process known as "backlit animation". In this process, live-action scenes inside the computer world were filmed in black-and-white on an entirely black set, printed on large-format high-contrast film, then colorized with photographic and rotoscopic techniques to give them a "technological" feel. With multiple layers of high-contrast, large-format positives and negatives, this process required truckloads of sheet film and a workload even greater than that of a conventional cel-animated feature. In addition, the varying quality and age of the film layers caused differing brightness levels for the backlit effects from frame to frame, explaining why glowing outlines and circuit traces tended to flicker in the original film. Due to its difficulty and cost, this process would never be repeated for another feature film.
This film features parts of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory — the multi-story ENCOM laser bay was the target area for the SHIVA solid state multi-beamed laser. Also, the stairway that Alan, Lora, and Flynn use to get to Alan's office is the stairway in Building 451 near the entrance to the main machine room. The cubicle scenes were shot in another room of the lab. TRON is the only movie to have scenes filmed inside this lab.
The original script called for "good" programs to be colored yellow and "evil" programs (those loyal to Sark and the MCP) to be colored blue. Partway into production, this coloring scheme was changed to blue for good and red for evil, but some scenes were produced using the original coloring scheme: Clu, who drives a tank, has yellow circuit lines, and all of Sark's tank commanders are blue (but appear green in some presentations). Also, the light-cycle sequence shows the heroes driving yellow, orange and red cycles, while Sark's troops drive blue cycles.
The background music for TRON was written by pioneer electronic musician Wendy Carlos, who is best known for her album Switched-On Bach and for the soundtracks to many films, including A Clockwork Orange and, later, The Shining. The music featured a mix of an analog Moog synthesizer and GDS digital synthesizer (complex additive and phase modulation synthesis), along with non-electronic pieces performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra (hired at the insistence of Disney, which was concerned that Carlos might not be able to complete her score on time). Two additional musical tracks were provided by the band Journey. They were originally going to be recorded by British band Supertramp. The soundtrack album was released on record and tape by CBS Records. It has been recently re-released by Walt Disney Records.
Budgeting the production was difficult because they were constantly breaking new ground as they progressed with additional challenges like an impending Directors Guild of America strike and a fixed release date.
For years, the soundtrack was unavailable on CD, originally due to a dispute between Carlos and CBS Records. Carlos later discovered that the original master tapes had deteriorated to the point where attempting to play them could destroy both the tapes and the playback machine. Carlos used a technique called tape baking (in which the tapes were literally baked in an oven to harden the glue holding the magnetic tape together) to repair the tapes so she could transfer them to digital masters.
TRON was released on July 9, 1982 in 1,091 theaters grossing USD $4.8 million on its opening weekend. It went on to make $33 million in North America, moderately successful considering its $17 million budget.
Critical reviews were mixed; review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes lists 68% positive reviews of the film, based on 37 reviews. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four out of four stars and described the film as "a dazzling movie from Walt Disney in which computers have been used to make themselves romantic and glamorous. Here's a technological sound-and-light show that is sensational and brainy, stylish, and fun". However, near the end of his review, he noted (in a positive tone), "This is an almost wholly technological movie. Although it's populated by actors who are engaging (Bridges, Cindy Morgan) or sinister (Warner), it is not really a movie about human nature. Like [the last two Star Wars films], but much more so, this movie is a machine to dazzle and delight us". Ebert was so convinced that this film had not been given its due credit by both critics and audiences that he decided to close his first annual Overlooked Film Festival with a showing of TRON. InfoWorld's Deborah Wise was impressed, writing that "it is hard to believe the characters acted out the scenes on a darkened soundstage... We see characters throwing illuminated Frisbees, driving 'light cycles' on a video-game grid, playing a dangerous version of jai alai and zapping numerous fluorescent tanks in arcade-game-type mazes. It's exciting, it's fun, and it's just what video-game fans and anyone with a spirit of adventure will love— despite plot weaknesses.
On the other hand, Variety disliked the film and said in its review, "Tron is loaded with visual delights but falls way short of the mark in story and viewer involvement. Screenwriter-director Steven Lisberger has adequately marshalled a huge force of technicians to deliver the dazzle, but even kids (and specifically computer game geeks) will have a difficult time getting hooked on the situations". In her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin criticized the film's visual effects: "They're loud, bright and empty, and they're all this movie has to offer". The Washington Post's Gary Arnold wrote, "Fascinating as they are as discrete sequences, the computer-animated episodes don't build dramatically. They remain a miscellaneous form of abstract spectacle". In his review for the Globe and Mail, Jay Scott wrote, "It's got momentum and it's got marvels, but it's without heart; it's a visionary technological achievement without vision".
In the year it was released, the Motion Picture Academy refused to nominate TRON for special effects because "they said we 'cheated' when we used computers which, in the light of what happened, is just mind-boggling". The film did, however, earn Oscar nominations in the categories of Best Costume Design and Best Sound. In 1997, Ken Perlin of the Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. won an Academy Award for Technical Achievement for his invention of Perlin noise for TRON.
On January 13, 2005, Walt Disney Pictures announced a new TRON movie (possibly a remake), with more emphasis on the Internet. This project was also hinted at previously in the new documentary that was filmed for the 20th-anniversary DVD, which was released in January 2002.
On September 11, 2007, it was reported that "director Joseph Kosinski is in final negotiations to develop and direct "TR2N", described as 'The Next Chapter' of Disney's 1982 cult classic. Sean Bailey is producing via the Live Planet banner, as is Steven Lisberger, who co-wrote and directed the original film." Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz, writers on the television show LOST, have been attached to the film.
Although other films previous to TRON's release featured very limited computer generated images (CGI), TRON is generally credited with being the first motion picture to prominently feature this type of special effect and make it integral to the storyline.
References in Other Media
Main article: Tron Parodies and Pop Culture References (Television)
- Steven Lisberger .... Director, Writer
- Bonnie MacBird .... Writer
- Harrison Ellenshaw .... associate producer
- Donald Kushner .... producer
- Ron Miller .... executive producer
- Wendy Carlos .... Original Music
- Bruce Logan .... Cinematographer
- Jeff Gourson .... Editor
- Pam Polifroni .... Casting
- Dean Edward Mitzner .... Production Designer
- John Mansbridge .... Art Director
- Al Roelofs .... Art Director
- Roger Shook .... Set Decorator
- Elois Jensson .... Costume Designer
- Rosanna Norton .... Costume Designer
- Gary Liddiard .... makeup artist
- Robert J. Schiffer .... makeup supervisor
- Joy Zapata .... hair stylist
- Ralph Sariego .... unit production manager
- Ted Schilz .... studio production manager
- Thomas L. Wilhite .... executive in charge of production
- Lorin B. Salob .... first assistant director
- Lisa Marmon .... second assistant director
- Roger Allers .... pre-production concepts
- Bob Beall .... draftsman
- John Dail .... draftsman
- Andy Gaskill .... production storyboards
- Jean 'Moebius' Giraud .... conceptual artist: electronic world
- Antoinette Gordon .... draftsman
- Eugene Harris .... draftsman
- Bill Kroyer .... production storyboards
- Chris Lane .... pre-production concepts
- Peter Lloyd .... conceptual artist: electronic world
- Syd Mead .... conceptual artist: electronic world
- Peter Mueller .... pre-production concepts
- John Norton .... pre-production concepts and production storyboards
- Shelley Phillips .... production painter
- Jerry W. Rees .... production storyboards
- Wilbur Russell .... property master
- Bob Stahler .... draftsman
- Richard Taylor .... electronic conceptual design
- Robert Bradshaw .... dialogue editor
- Champ Davenport .... voice processing: "MCP"
- Gordon Ecker Jr. .... supervising sound editor
- Michael Fremer .... sound design supervisor
- Stan Gilbert .... dialogue editor
- Bob Hathaway .... sound department supervisor
- Randy Kelley .... sound effects editor
- Jim LaRue .... production sound mixer
- John M. Lowry .... assistant sound editor
- Jack Manning .... voice processing: "MCP"
- Vince Melandri .... sound effects editor
- Anthony Milch .... sound effects editor
- Bob Minkler .... sound re-recording mixer
- Lee Minkler .... sound re-recording mixer
- Michael Minkler .... sound re-recording mixer
- Bob Newlan .... assistant sound editor
- Frank Serafine .... sound effects design and synthesis
- Bill Shenberg .... dialogue editor
- Marvin Walowitz .... sound effects editor
- Mike Wilhoit .... foley editor
- John Roesch .... foley artist (uncredited)
- Philip Rogers .... sound recordist (uncredited)
- Wylie Stateman .... supervising sound editor (uncredited)
- R.J. Spetter .... mechanical special effects
- Gary D'Amico .... special effects (uncredited)
- David Domeyer .... special effects (uncredited)
- Mike Edmonson .... special effects technician (uncredited)
- Hans Metz .... special effects assistant (uncredited)
- Mike Reedy .... special effects technician (uncredited)
- John Aardal .... animation compositing camera
- Frank Amador .... photo-rotoscope supervisor
- Peter Anderson .... photographic process lab supervisor
- William Arance .... airbrush artist
- Andy Atkins .... airbrush artist
- Richard Baily .... systems programmer: Robert Abel & Associates
- Don Baker .... animation compositing camera
- Vicki Banks .... assistant effects animator
- Carolyn Bates .... background technical inker
- John Bates .... background composite assistant
- Greg Battes .... airbrush supervisor
- John Beach .... Synthavision production: MAGI Synthavision
- Tom Bisogno .... Synthavision production: MAGI Synthavision
- Peter Blinn .... scene coordinator
- Allen Blyth .... assistant effects animator
- Bob Broughton .... opticals
- Jan Browning .... matte production
- Deena Burkett .... scene coordinator
- Don Button .... scene coordinator
- Glenn Campbell .... animation compositing camera
- Nancy Hunter Campi .... scene programmer: MAGI Synthavision
- Chris Casady .... effects animator
- Ed Coffey .... assistant effects animator
- Kerry Colonna .... scene coordinator
- Clint Colver .... scene coordinator
- Barry Cook .... effects animator
- Art Cruickshank .... photographic process lab supervisor
- Dana Duff .... assistant scene coordinator
- William Dungan Jr. .... scene programmer: Information International, Inc.
- Art Durinski .... object digitizing: Information International, Inc.
- Eric Durst .... assistant effects animator
- Lee Dyer .... effects animation supervisor
- Douglas Eby .... animation compositing camera
- Dennis Edwards .... assistant effects animator
- Larry Elin Popielinski .... scene creation concepts: MAGI Synthavision
- Harrison Ellenshaw .... visual effects supervisor
- George Epperson .... animation compositing camera
- Gail Finkeldei .... effects animator
- Bernie Gagliano .... background plate photography
- Michael Gibson .... scene coordinator
- Kris Gregg .... camera: Robert Abel & Associates
- John Grower .... scene coordinator
- Marian Guder .... photo-rotoscope coordinator
- Peter Gullerud .... assistant effects animator
- Sandra Harper .... background composite assistant
- Brandy Whittington .... animation compositing camera
- Shelley Hinton .... assistant scene coordinator
- Jacqui Hooks .... assistant scene coordinator
- Dave Iwerks .... background plate photography
- Jim Keating .... scene coordinator
- Gayl Kelm .... photo-rotoscope supervisor
- Dick Kendall .... animation compositing camera
- Patric Kenly .... camera: Robert Abel & Associates
- Jeffrey Kleiser .... computer production supervisor: Digital Effects Inc.
- Bill Kovacs .... systems programmer: Robert Abel & Associates
- Bill Kroyer .... computer image choreography
- Paul La Mori .... assistant scene coordinator
- Gene Larmon .... background plate photography
- Laura Leiben .... assistant scene coordinator
- Donald Leich .... computer animator: Digital Effects Inc.
- David V. Lester .... effects unit manager
- Steven Lisberger .... visual effects concepts
- Larry Malone .... scene programmer: Information International, Inc.
- Annie McEveety .... animation compositing camera
- Stephen McEveety .... effects unit manager
- Tim McGovern .... systems programmer: Robert Abel & Associates
- Mal McMillan .... scene programmer: Information International, Inc.
- Gene Miller .... computer animator: Digital Effects Inc.
- Kenny Mirman .... design supervisor: Robert Abel & Associates
- Kieran Mulgrew .... animation compositing camera
- Craig Newman .... scene coordinator
- John Norton .... effects animator
- Ron Osenbaugh .... photo-rotoscope supervisor
- Jim Pickel .... animation compositing camera supervisor
- Ron Rae .... assistant scene coordinator
- Jerry W. Rees .... computer image choreography
- Craig W. Reynolds .... scene programmer: Information International, Inc.
- Roger Rinati .... photo-rotoscope supervisor
- Catherine Eby .... background composite assistant
- Darrell Rooney .... effects animator
- Maria Ramocki .... assistant effects animator
- Dana Ross .... animation compositing camera
- Cynthia Rush .... assistant scene coordinator
- Marta Russell .... background composite supervisor
- Scott Russo .... assistant scene coordinator
- John Scheele .... effects technical supervisor
- Jeremy Schwartz .... scene programmer: Information International, Inc.
- Lorraine Schweizer .... background composite assistant
- Dave Scott .... photo-rotoscope supervisor
- James Walter Shaw .... airbrush artist
- Lynn Singer .... matte production
- Ron Stangl .... assistant effects animator
- Dave Stephan .... assistant effects animator
- Linda D. Stokes .... scene coordinator
- Richard Taylor .... computer effects supervisor, visual effects supervisor
- Lynda Ellenshaw ....assistant scene coordinator
- Maureen Trueblood .... assistant effects animator
- John Tucker .... assistant effects animator
- James Valentine .... assistant scene coordinator
- John Van Vliet .... effects animator
- Neil Viker .... animation compositing camera
- Frank Vitz .... systems programmer: Robert Abel & Associates
- Paul Wainess .... animation compositing camera
- Christian Wedge .... scene programmer: MAGI Synthavision
- Byron Werner .... assistant effects animator
- Denise Wethington .... assistant scene coordinator
- Lynn Wilkinson .... computer production coordinator: Information International, Inc.
- Michael Wolf .... effects animator
- Arnie Wong .... matte production supervisor
- Thomas Baker .... animation compositing camera (uncredited)
- William Cruse .... animation camera (uncredited)
- Christopher Dusendschon .... camera system design team: Robert Abel & Associates (uncredited)
- Jammie Friday .... rotoscope (uncredited)
- Bill Kent .... animation compositing camera (uncredited)
- David Mattingly .... digital artist (uncredited)
- Liza Moon .... digital artist: MAGI Synthavision (uncredited)
- Richard E. Butler Jr. .... stunt coordinator
- Bill Burton
- James Deeth
- Bennie E. Dobbins
- Rita Egleston
- Gary Epper
- Donna Garrett
- Larry Holt
- Hank Hooker
- Gary Jensen
- Al Jones
- Fred Lerner
- Ross Reynolds
- Walter Scott
- Glenn Wilder
- James Winburn
- Charlie Picerni
- James Anderson .... first assistant camera
- Bernie Bayless .... best boy
- Owen Crompton .... grip supervisor
- Valerie Hagenbush .... camera schedule coordinator
- Greg Heschong .... camera operator
- Herbert Hughes .... electrician supervisor
- Horace Jordan .... first assistant camera
- Christopher Keith .... camera schedule coordinator
- Rexford Metz .... camera operator
- Ron Peebles .... second grip
- Roger Redel .... gaffer
- Stan Reed .... key grip
- Lynn Tomes .... first assistant camera
- Ron Vargas .... camera operator
- Mike Weldon .... first assistant camera
- Mario Zavala .... second assistant camera
- Peter McEvoy .... animation camera operator (uncredited)
- Steven Wilzbach .... animation camera operator (uncredited)
- Lisa Adams .... ink and paint artist
- Maria Luisa Alvarez .... ink artist
- Priscilla Alvarez .... ink and paint artist
- Christopher D. Andrews .... background artist
- Peter Aries .... international cel coordinator
- Christina Caspary .... ink artist
- Lin Chinyi .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Gary Conklin .... background artist
- Cathy Crum]] .... ink and paint artist
- Janette Downs .... ink artist
- Lillian Fitts .... ink artist
- Alison DiCecio .... ink and paint artist
- Larry Grossman .... background artist
- Corey Harris .... background artist
- Paul Hernandez .... international cel coordinator
- Hsieh Tai Hua .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Liu Hsingyuan .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- May Kong .... ink artist
- Tia W. Kratter .... background artist
- Peter Lloyd .... background designer
- Flavia Mitman .... ink and paint artist
- Peter Mueller .... background artist
- Bonny Nardini .... ink artist
- Julian Pena .... international cel coordinator
- Ronnie Prinz .... ink and paint artist
- Elaine Robinson .... ink and paint artist
- Wu Sheng Neng .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Chiou Wen Shian .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Chen Shihhsiung .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Jesse Silver .... background painting supervisor
- Ann Marie Sorenson .... ink and paint artist
- Auril Pebley .... effects ink and paint supervisor
- Tsai Tingting .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Donald Towns .... background artist
- Wang Chung Yuan .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Thomas Woodington .... background artist
- Raulette Woods .... international cel coordinator
- Peng Yilin .... production ink and paint matting: Cuckoo's Nest Studios
- Tim Burton .... animator (uncredited)
- David Halver .... ink and paint artist (uncredited)
- Rick Moore .... animator (uncredited)
- Lorry Richter .... costumes: men
- Nedra Rosemond-Watt .... costumes: women
- Jack Sandeen .... costume supervisor
- Ed Capuano .... negative cutter
- Baylis Glascock .... assistant editor
- Walter Hekking .... assistant editor
- Martin Welsh .... color timer
- Richard Bowden .... conductor: Los Angeles Orchestra
- Jorge Calandrelli .... orchestrator
- Wendy Carlos .... music synthesizer performances and processing
- Michael Dilbeck .... special record coordinator
- Annemarie Franklin .... assistant to composer
- Michael Fremer .... music supervisor
- Douglas Gamley .... conductor: London Philharmonic Orchestra
- Jeffrey Gusman .... music layout
- Journey .... songs: Music and Lyrics by
- John Mosely .... scoring recordist
- Tom Bocci .... music supervisor: songs (uncredited)
- Dyke Johnson .... effects transportation
- Katy Johnson .... effects transportation
- Robert Abel .... systems supervisor: Robert Abel & Associates
- Edle Bakke .... script supervisor
- Dave Barnett .... computer systems and software development
- Martin O. Cohen Ph.D. .... Synthavision technologist: MAGI Synthavision
- Michael G. Craig .... production assistant
- Stephanie Burt .... sample art supervisor
- Rob Hummel .... laboratory coordinator
- Dave Inglish .... computer systems and software development
- Don Iwerks .... mechanical designs and conversions
- Debra DeVito Jackson .... production assistant
- Mark Kimball .... computer systems and software development
- Eileen Kuramoto .... film logging
- Margaret Flook .... secretary: Mr. Lisberger
- Phil Mittelman Ph.D. .... technology concepts: MAGI Synthavision
- Mical Morrish .... production assistant
- Anna-Lisa Nilsson .... secretary: Mr. Lisberger
- Denise Olivo .... production assistant
- Bob Otto .... mechanical designs and conversions
- Kenneth Perlin .... Synthavision technologist: MAGI Synthavision
- Don Porterfield .... mechanical designs and conversions
- Marty Prager .... computer systems and software development
- Judson Rosebush .... systems supervisor: Digital Effects Inc.
- Michael Schilz .... production assistant
- Herbert Steinberg Ph.D. .... Synthavision technologist: MAGI Synthavision
- Bill Tondreau .... computer systems and software development
- Eugene Troubetzkoy Ph.D. .... Synthavision technologist: MAGI Synthavision
- Wendy Williams .... production assistant
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